As early as 1835 local militia were organized into ranging companies by Stephen F. Austin to aid in the common defense of early colonists in what would become the Republic of Texas. Their designation as Rangers derived from the vast areas over which they were required to “range” in the performance of their duties.
Following Texas’ independence from Mexico in 1836 and its entry into the Union in 1845 the Rangers fame continued to spread, with names like John Coffee “Jack” Hays, “Big Foot” Wallace, and John “Rip” Ford recognized well beyond its borders. However, there was still no formal organization as such. These ranging companies banded together for days or months in response to Indian raids or the lawlessness that was brought on by Reconstruction at the end of the Civil War and then disbanded just as quickly as soon as the immediate threat was addressed.
The term “Texas Rangers” first appeared officially in May 1874 when Governor Richard Coke and the Texas Legislature appropriated funds and authorized the organization of six companies of 75 men each to maintain law and order on the Texas frontier. These Ranger companies became known as the Frontier Battalion and were commanded by Major John B. Jones.
John Jones sure didn’t look like the man to exercise the mandate given to him by the governor. At 5’8″, slightly built and soft-spoken, he was hardly of a stature to intimidate anyone, but he commanded respect and volunteers came from all over Texas to sign on the dotted line and serve under his leadership with unwavering loyalty. His creed, which they would all adopt, was “no man in the wrong can stand up to a man in the right who just keeps a-comin’.” And keep a-comin’ they did. – excerpt from Palo Duro.