Have You Forgotten?

Tomorrow marks the 19th anniversary of the 9/11/2001 terrorist attacks. The passage of time, however, has a way of mitigating our memories of horrific events. So the question “Have You Forgotten?” is as relevant and today as it was when the song was first recorded and released in 2003 by country music artist Daryl Worley.

2,996 people perished in the single deadliest terrorist attack on U.S. soil, forever changing the world as we knew it. It resulted in seemingly endless wars in the Middle East, as well as the establishment of the Homeland Security Department and the Transportation Security Administration.  Americans have wearied of these wars and protocols, yet the denial of safe haven to terrorist organizations and the measures implemented to safeguard the United States from further attacks of this magnitude have succeeded.

But what do we remember?

The Islamic extremist organization known as al Qaeda carried out the 9/11 suicide attacks using four hijacked planes. All four planes had been bound for California and were chosen by the nineteen terrorists involved for the amount of jet fuel needed for these transcontinental flights. The intent was to cause maximum damage and casualties upon impact with their intended targets.

The first plane struck the north tower of the World Trade Center in New York at 8:45 a.m. Eastern Standard Time, plowing into the 80th floor of the building. Americans watched live news coverage of the disaster that at first glance appeared to be a horrible accident. Not until the second Boeing 767 flew into the 60th floor of the south tower at 9:03 a.m. did the realization hit that this was a planned coordinated attack. Not long afterward at 9:45 a.m. a third plane crashed into the west side of the Pentagon complex in Washington, D.C.

Only a delayed takeoff of United Flight 93 out of Newark, New Jersey allowed those onboard to learn of these three previous attacks. Demonstrating amazing courage and resolve the passengers and crew attempted to stop their highjackers from completing their suicide mission. Their intervention resulted in the plane crashing into a rural field outside Shanksville, Pennsylvania at 10:10 a.m. The intended target remains unknown. There were no survivors.

The collapse of the two towers killed 2,763 people including those who worked at the World Trade Center, first responders (343 firefighters and 72 law enforcement officers died trying to rescue those trapped inside the burning buildings), and the crew and passengers from American Airlines Flight 11 and United Flight 175 (both flights originated from Logan Airport in Boston). The attack on the Pentagon resulted in 189 deaths (125 military personnel along with the crew and passengers from American Airlines Flight 77, which originated from Washington Dulles International Airport). The crash of United Flight 93 added another 44 casualties to the day’s total. Countless others were severely injured and lingering health issues over time have led to additional deaths (those numbers are not reflected in the 2,996 total).

The attacks were conceived by Khalid Sheikh Mohammed who was captured March 1, 2003 in Rawalpindi, Pakistan and remains in U.S. custody at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. He is set to stand trial in 2021. The authorization to carry out the attacks was given by al Qaeda’s leader Osama bin Laden who was killed May 1, 2011 near Islamabad, Pakistan.

The photos at the top of this post are of the three memorials erected in memory of the 9/11 victims. On the first anniversary of 9/11 two columns of light were shot into the New York sky from the site of the collapsed twin towers. The official opening of the National September 11 Memorial & Museum took place in May 2014. The Pentagon memorial was dedicated September 11, 2008 and the Flight 93 National Memorial followed on September 10, 2011.

There will be official ceremonies at all three locations tomorrow attended by dignitaries, families of the deceased, and survivors of the deadly attacks. I wonder, however, how many Americans will pause to remember the horrors of this date in our history.

Have you forgotten?

The Nuclear Age: The 75th Anniversary of the Bombing of Hiroshima

Seventy-five years ago today, August 6th, 1945, the United States dropped the first atomic bomb on the Japanese city of Hiroshima. The five ton uranium bomb nicknamed “Little Boy” detonated at an altitude of 2,000 feet with a force of fifteen kilotons of TNT. 70,000 people died in an instant, with over 200,000 total estimated casualties due to burns and lingering illnesses caused by radiation poisoning.

The city of Hiroshima had been chosen because of its importance to the Japanese war effort as a supply and logistics base, a major communications and weapons manufacturing center, and a key shipping port for the resupply of Japanese forces. Additionally, it had not been previously targeted during conventional bombing raids of the Japanese mainland, and was thought to be the best site to test the efficacy of the newly developed weapon.

Then President Harry S. Truman authorized the air strike to end the war and save American lives. The war in the Pacific had raged on for four years, and the Japanese Emperor in concert with his military leaders was preparing to mobilize the entire country to defend the home islands. Casualty projections for an invasion of the mainland were estimated at another half-million leaving Truman to deliberate prolonging the war and suffering or using a weapon that had the potential to bring about immediate unconditional surrender.

Ethical and legal debate over the use of the device is still being debated today. However, even with the unprecedented destruction and loss of lives at Hiroshima, Japan refused to surrender which led to the decision to drop a second bomb nicknamed “Fat Man” August 9th, 1945 on the city of Nagasaki.  Another 80,000 Japanese citizens perished.

Today, the skeletal remains of the former Hiroshima Industrial Promotion Hall houses the Peace Memorial Museum, “a stark and powerful symbol of the most destructive force ever created by mankind.” Aging survivors known as Hibakusha (now in their 80’s and fast disappearing from public consciousness) retell their stories to keep alive their memories of  unimaginable destruction and human suffering in the hope that nuclear weapons will never again be used.

The development of nuclear weapons and their proliferation around the world has significantly expanded since the Japanese surrender August 15th, 1945. There are an estimated 145,000 weapons in existence today with nine countries officially listed as possessing the ability to carry out a nuclear attack: the United States, Russia, the United Kingdom, France, China, India, Pakistan, Israel, and North Korea.

Given that these weapons are far more powerful than those first two dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, let us hope and pray that the leaders of those governments resolve to negotiate and settle differences diplomatically, or worst case use conventional warfare, rather than relying on their nuclear arsenals.

A Legal Victory For Native Americans

Supreme CourtOn July 9th the United States Supreme Court handed down a landmark ruling affecting Native American tribal rights. The question before the court in “McGirt vs Oklahoma” was whether Congress eliminated the Muscogee (Creek) Indian reservation when Oklahoma became a state in 1907. In a 5-4 ruling that addressed federal criminal law inside the reservation, the court held that… Because Congress has not stated otherwise, we hold the government to its word. Land promised is still Indian land.

Since the publication of my novel on westward expansion, Palo DuroI have frequently written posts commenting on the long history of mistreatment and broken promises towards Native Americans:

What the majority [of Indians] didn’t comprehend and couldn’t understand was that as the U.S. expansion continued westward, it meant the circumstances as well as any promises made today would change tomorrow. It mattered not that these promises were in writing. A different day, a different administration, a different treaty; each time the new document diminishing or totally negating any assurances previously given. (Standing Rock – “Water Is Life,” Mar 1, 2017)

Many of those promises were never fulfilled resulting in the Indian Wars which did not end until 1891, and the modern American Indian Movement which, since its inception in the 1960’s, has sought to focus attention on the history of broken promises made by the U.S. government to Native Americans. (Broken Promises, Nov 1, 2017)

Throughout American history Native Americans have struggled to protect their people, land, and way of life against the advancement of civilization. (Sacred Land, Dec 6, 2017)

What remains uncertain is whether the United States government will honor long standing treaty rights. (Broken Treaties, Sep 5, 2019)

For the moment, that question has been answered. Much remains to be negotiated between Muscogee leaders and federal law enforcement, but the immediate impact of the Supreme Court’s decision is that federal officers, not state authorities, will have the power to prosecute major crimes committed in the defined area (three million acres in eastern Oklahoma which includes the city of Tulsa, Oklahoma’s second biggest city.)

The majority opinion, as expressed by Justice Neil Gorsuch, also asserts that only Congress, not the courts, has the authority to modify treaty agreements. Since no such action was ever initiated by Congress when Oklahoma achieved statehood, the ruling could also affect over two million Indians (Cherokee, Choctaw, Chickasaw, and Seminole) whose forced relocation to eastern Oklahoma occurred during this same historical period.

Each treaty will probably have to be adjudicated separately, however the legal precedent has now been established for the protection of tribal rights and holding the U.S. government accountable.

 

 

Big Wonderful Thing – A History of Texas: My Review

Many of you will be familiar with author John Steinbeck’s statement, Texas is a state of mind, something felt rather than articulated, which certainly applies to my feelings about the place I’ve called home for fifty-four years… 1966-2020. Moreover, should you count my years as an adolescent living in San Antonio from 1952-1960 (I was three when my Dad got assigned to Headquarters, 4th U.S. Army, and I attended school at Fort Sam Houston, Texas from kindergarten through the fifth grade) it adds up to sixty-two years that I’ve claimed the Lone Star State as my own.

Big Woderful Thing Book CoverBecause of my inability to adequately explain what it is about Texas that I love, I find myself periodically reading books by authors far more gifted than I at expressing their observations and thoughts on the mystique that separates Texas from all other states. For example, it was almost on this exact same date two years ago that I wrote a review of the book God Save Texas by Lawrence Wright (see my previous blog post dated Jul 5, 2018) which was actually being researched and written at the same time that Stephen Harrigan was compiling his history of Texas, Big Wonderful Thing. The two men happen to be friends and visited some of the same historical sites together.

However, Harrigan’s book is encyclopedic compared to Wright’s; at 925 pages (829 if you exclude the Acknowledgements, Notes, Bibliography, and Index) it is massive in scope, yet surprisingly readable. History is often nothing more than dates, historical figures and events; dry and boring. Harrigan blends these same elements of history with great storytelling, so the only real issue I had with the book was the difficulty I had holding it up to read!

Meticulously researched, Big Wonderful Thing is informative, educational, and entertaining. It spans the years 1528 to the present, but rather than a strict chronological record it uses anecdotal information and individual stories of people and events – not just those that are well known, but obscure men and women and their involvement in moments that shaped the progression and evolution of Texas.

The portrayal goes well beyond the myths about Texas that as a child I learned in school. The reality is far more complex, and Harrigan deftly blends factual material with his abilities as a novelist to engage readers in the small details and stories that give context to the larger picture. Some author bias is inevitable in the telling of these stories, but on the whole it is a notable literary achievement.

The title of the book comes from a quote by the American artist Georgia O’Keeffe: I couldn’t believe Texas was real… the same big wonderful thing that oceans and the highest mountains are. 

Certainly Texas, with all of its faults, complexities, and contradictions has achieved singular elevated status (for better or worse) among the fifty states that comprise our Union, and Stephen Harrigan has given us a worthy rendering of its history that compares favorably and even exceeds that previously attempted by other historians and authors. It is the type of history book that you can literally open to any chapter and find enjoyment in learning something new about Texas or adding to the knowledge that you already had.

I highly recommend Big Wonderful Thing.

 

Sunday, June 14th

In the midst of our national anguish over systemic racism, the coronavirus, and record unemployment our focus has justifiably been on police accountability and reform, the rising numbers of COVID-19 cases, and finding a balance between reopening the economy and the need for social distancing. The Black Lives Matter protests, the pandemic, and financial hardship not seen since the Great Depression are our daily reality, all extensively covered by the media, the subject of conversations between family members  and friends, as well as factors in our decision making and activities.

We are certainly witnessing a historical confluence of events in this country and throughout the world, yet it is also important for Americans to acknowledge Flag Day and the Army’s 245th birthday. Both occurred yesterday (Sunday, June 14th) yet largely went by without notice or observance.

It was on this day in 1775 that the First Continental Congress authorized enlistment of soldiers to fight the British in what became known as the Continental Army (before the United States was even established as a country.) After the Revolutionary War and our independence, it would be re-designated as the U.S. Army on June 3, 1784.

Also on this day in 1777 the Second Continental Congress officially adopted the Stars and Stripes as our National flag. In 1916 President Woodrow Wilson would recognize the date as Flag Day, but it wouldn’t be until August 3, 1949 that President Harry S. Truman officially established June 14th as a day to pay tribute to this symbol of national unity.

Though this nation is far from united, and we have yet to achieve equal justice under the law for all our citizens regardless of race, I proudly fly the American flag 365 days a year. For me it is a symbol of hope, of what we aspire to be as a nation. It still stands for freedom and embodies the words penned by Thomas Jefferson and contained in our Declaration of Independence… “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal.”

I also take great pride in the United States Army as an institution that protects those freedoms. In the oath of enlistment and oath for commissioned officers are the words “I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will support and defend the Constitution of the United States against all enemies, foreign and domestic; that I will bear true faith and allegiance to the same; that I will obey the orders of the President of the United States and the orders of the officers appointed over me, according to regulations and the Uniform Code of Military Justice. So help me God.” It is an oath not taken lightly. Among its many provisions, the Constitution guarantees freedom of speech, the right to peaceably assemble, the right to vote, and the right to petition the government for redress of grievances. I took and upheld this oath during the twenty-four years that I wore the uniform as did the enlisted and officers with whom I had the privilege to serve. I hold them in the highest regard as I do the men and women of today’s Army.

Though Flag Day and the Army’s birthday have passed, Americans are encouraged to fly the flag all this week and it is always appropriate to express appreciation to our veterans and the men and women currently serving in the Armed Forces. Even amidst the uncertainty and turmoil of today some observances are worth our effort.

Finally I pray that in 2020 we also finally acknowledge systemic racism and institute meaningful and long overdue change, that we successfully develop a vaccine to fight and defeat this infectious disease, and that we return to economic prosperity not for just for the few, but for everyone.

The Law West of the Pecos

One of the most colorful characters to come out of the Old West was Judge Roy Bean, the self-proclaimed “Law West of the Pecos.” As Justice of the Peace, Bean had a reputation as a tough hanging judge. However, while he was known to occasionally stage hangings to scare away criminals, he never actually hung anyone.

Bean settled in Vinegaroon, Texas in 1881 at the confluence of the Rio Grande and Pecos Rivers where he set up a tent saloon to sell liquor at exorbitant  prices to railroad workers (mostly Chinese laborers.) Two years later with the construction of the Pecos High Bridge the rail lines shifted away from Vinegaroon and Bean relocated to the town of Langtry where he built the Jersey Lily Saloon and Judge Roy Bean’s courtroom on the railroad right of way.

Western legend holds that the town was named after the British stage actress, Lillie Langtry. Bean is said to have fallen in love with a portrait of the lady though he never actually made her acquaintance. Nonetheless, he followed her career, wrote her letters inviting her to visit the West Texas town, and even constructed an Opera House adjacent to his saloon in the hope that she would one day perform there.

As Justice of the Peace, Judge Roy Bean’s methods and rulings were often questionable, mainly carried out to line his own pockets. One of the more humorous judgments handed down was fining a dead man $40, the exact amount found in the deceased’s pockets! Judge Roy Bean died in 1903 after a particularly heavy drinking spree.

Lillie Langtry did visit the town six months after Bean’s death during a brief stop of the Sunset Limited on its way from New Orleans to Los Angeles. Among the gifts presented to the actress by the townspeople was Judge Roy Bean’s six-shooter. The Jersey Lily Saloon and the Opera House were sold to a wealthy Texas cattleman and later donated to the state of Texas.

Judge Roy Bean’s story has often been portrayed on the silver screen, most notably in William Wyler’s 1940 movie, “The Westerner” (Walter Brennan won an Academy Award for his portrayal) and in John Huston’s 1972 film, “The Life and Times of Judge Roy Bean” starring Paul Newman.

 

Print the Legend – The Life and Times of John Ford: My Review

Print the Legend Book CoverI do not often read biographies. In fact, I can only think of two in recent years, this book and Alexander Hamilton by Ron Chernow, both given to me by my son Sean, who knows of my love of history and my admiration for John Ford’s movies. Both are detailed accounts; Chernow’s Alexander Hamilton is a daunting 995 pages, while Scot Eyman’s Print the Legend runs 660 pages. I guess he also understands my love of reading!

Print the legend has its origin in Ford’s last great western, The Man Who Shot Liberty Valance. In the film Jimmy Stewart’s character, Senator Ransom Stoddard, returns to the town where his political career began to bury his old friend, Tom Doniphan (played by actor John Wayne.) The senator’s fame as the man who shot and killed the stagecoach robber Liberty Valance is a lie, and Stoddard comes back not only to pay tribute to his friend but to finally reveal the truth that it was Doniphan who killed Valance (portrayed on screen by the actor Lee Marvin,) not him. However, the truth is never printed. The newspaper editor interviewing the senator kills the story, with the now famous line, “This is the West, sir. When the legend becomes fact, print the legend.” Just as the myth of the Old West is what people want to remember, it is the myth that surrounds John Ford that moviegoers most want to associate with one of cinema’s greatest directors.

After this motion picture, John Ford was no longer the master  of his craft; age and infirmity had taken its toll. With illness (cancer) overwhelming him, he no longer had the energy to direct movies that so vividly depicted early American life. He had created the mythology of westward expansion and the transition from wilderness to civilization using beautiful landscapes and richly drawn characters who embodied the spirit of the new nation; so much so that Ford became known as “the man that invented America.”

His genius lay in his ability to visualize the scene in his head, positioning the camera in the right spot (never moving it) to recreate that scene, minimizing dialogue, and manipulating actors to achieve the desired performance in one take. He could be a tyrant, humiliating even the biggest names in show business to get the performance that he desired.

Ford also demanded total loyalty from his cast and in return used the same actors in multiple movies often carrying them on the payroll for an entire shoot regardless of how small or even non-existent their role was in the finished film. Contradict or question him on set, however, and though he would outwardly remain your friend, you might never again work in another one of his projects.

Scott Leyman doesn’t spare the reader the many inconsistencies between the man and the legend. Ford was an alcoholic who would go on binges that left him totally incoherent. He was stereo typically Irish, subject to melancholy and self-doubt.  The son of a bartender from Maine, he never felt at ease in society, and created a persona that didn’t care about anyone’s opinion but his own. He could be cruel, crude, arrogant and snobbish, but underneath that facade was a very private sentimental old man that simply didn’t know how to relate to the people he most loved. A Roman Catholic, Ford never considered divorce from his wife of over fifty years, Mary, though he apparently had both flings and affairs with other women, most notably Katherine Hepburn. He was estranged from his son Pat and would later disinherit him, while he indulged his daughter Barbara in spite of her alcoholism. Politically he was thought to be a die-hard conservative, while in fact he was a life-long Democrat and liberal. He filmed many of his movies in Monument Valley using Navajo Indians to portray Apache, Comanche, and Cheyenne. It didn’t matter. He saw the plight of the Navajo Nation and tried to assist it economically by using the locale over and over casting the same people each time. He argued against racism in his masterpiece, The Searchers, and strongly advocated equality and dignity towards the black race in the film Sergeant Rutledge.

In many regards these films reflect the political realities of Vietnam and the changing attitudes and tastes of his viewing audience in the 1960s. The public desire for movies that glorified the Old West had been replaced by the demand for a more nuanced portrayal of the events and those involved in them. Ironically, it led John Ford to dismantle the very mythology that he had created in his earlier movies.

There is absolutely no way that I can capture the essence of John Ford in this post. His career and filmography spanned several decades, 1914-1971. He remains the most decorated film director of all time, winning six Academy Awards. He received the Purple Heart Medal for wounds suffered during the Battle of Midway in WWII, and rose to the rank of Admiral in the Navy. Prior to his death August 31, 1973, he became the first recipient of the American Film Institute’s Lifetime Achievement Award, and was awarded the Medal of Freedom, the highest civilian honor bestowed by the President of the United States.

I wrote previously of his influence on my decision to write my western novel, Palo Duro:

The western genre no longer holds the public’s attention as it once did in cinema and published media. But I grew up in the age of Director John Ford and his rousing tributes to the U.S. cavalry in the film trilogy “Fort Apache,” She Wore a Yellow Ribbon,” and “Rio Grande,” as well as his homage to one of the most recognized icons of the Old West, Wyatt Earp, in the classic film “My Darling Clementine.”

I have watched John Ford’s movies countless times in my youth and into my adult life, and there is no doubt that they have left a lasting legacy not only on me, but on the motion picture industry. After reading Scott Eyman’s book, I now know many details about Ford’s private life that are contradictory to my image of him, but while it has often been said that “familiarity breeds contempt,” I prefer to remember his towering achievements.

“When the legend becomes fact, print the legend.”

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Killing Patton – The Strange Death of World War II’s Most Audacious General: My Review

Killing Patton Book CoverHaving recently reviewed Killing the SS (see my post dated August 23, 2019) I was asked by a friend whether I had read Killing Patton, another entry in the series by Bill O’Reilly and Martin Dugard. I had not, so I was given his copy to read.

From the title you might think that the book focuses solely on Patton’s death in December 1945. It does not. In fact, only the last few chapters are devoted to the “accident” that initially left him paralyzed and took his life less than two weeks later. There’s a definite reason for this which I’ll address in a moment.

Most of the book is an account of the waning days of World War II. The Nazis are defeated but the Fuhrer, Adolph Hitler, clings to the delusion that he can somehow turn the tide of war and yet claim victory. He mounts an all out counterattack in the Ardennes Forest that is so unexpected that it nearly succeeds before the Wehrmacht and the SS Panzer Divisions simply run out of petrol and can advance no further.

The Battle of the Bulge, as it is known to history, sets the stage for General George Patton’s Third Army to rush to the relief of the 101st Airborne Division trapped in the town of Bastogne, Belgium. It will be his greatest moment in a career of amazing accomplishments.

Forever the warrior, Patton doesn’t believe that World War II is the war to end all wars. He sees the Soviet Union as the next big threat even as the Soviet Army is given the honor of taking Berlin. He is outspoken in his characterization of Soviet forces as Mongol hordes, and the ruthless slaughter and rape that occurs as they liberate previously held German territories is proof of Stalin’s brutal push for Soviet hegemony in postwar Europe.

Patton’s outspokenness has got him in trouble before. A casual remark to women at the opening of a “Welcome Club” for American soldiers in Knutsford, England causes an uproar when Patton slights the Soviets by telling the gathering that the Americans and British will rule a postwar world. The well-intentioned words make headlines around the world and he becomes a political liability. “His hopes of assuming a major postwar command in a world divided between the United States and the Soviet Union had all but vanished.”

“Old Blood & Guts” also has no tolerance for cowardice. While visiting with soldiers that have been wounded in battle he encounters two men suffering from what we refer to today as PTSD. There’s no such diagnosis at the time and when he sees no visible wounds, he not only berates the soldiers in question but orders them back to the front, and on two separate occasions strikes the afflicted servicemen. In the latter instance, he even pulls out his pistol and threatens to shoot the individual on the spot. Such actions almost lead to his relief from command and reduction in rank, but his skills as a battlefield commander are yet sorely needed. Patton is forced to issue a public apology and his standing and influence in a postwar world are further marginalized.

All of these accounts are well known, covered by the press and captured on celluloid in the 1970 Academy Award winning film “Patton” starring George C. Scott. Where O’Reilly and Dugard really standout, however, is in little known background information and insights involving world leaders such as Hitler, Churchill, Stalin, Roosevelt and Truman, and both the Allied and German military commanders; Eisenhower, Bradley, Montgomery, Zhukov, Rommel, Peiper and their personalities, ambitions, strategies and tactics that determined victory or defeat. No other historical writers offer these kind of anecdotes and details about World War II.

Ironically and through no fault of their own, these are exactly the type of details lacking in the story of Patton’s death. The official accident report no longer exists. The driver of the 2.5 ton vehicle that struck Patton’s jeep, Tech Sergeant Robert L. Thompson, was never investigated for driving a stolen vehicle or operating it under the influence and simply vanishes from the historical record. The only report is that of PFC Horace Woodring, Patton’s driver, who claims he never made or signed any such report.

Even more interesting is the initial diagnosis that, in spite of his paralysis, Patton will recover from his injuries and regain some mobility. Two weeks later he is dead and no autopsy to determine the cause of death is ever performed. And, still more damning is a confession on September 25,1979 by OSS operative Douglas Bazata that he was part of a hit team that assassinated the general. Bazata claims to have fired a projectile into Patton’s neck that snapped it, but when he didn’t immediately die, Soviet NKVD intelligence operatives poisoned him while he was recovering at the U.S. Army 130th Station Hospital in Heidelberg, Germany.

In the Afterword to their book, Bill O’Reilly and Martin Dugard call for a re-examination of the case in the belief that technological advances might resolve the mystery. Regardless of whether the many unanswered questions are ever resolved, this is another fascinating entry into the Killing series.

 

 

 

Broken Treaties

National Historic Trail

History records countless instances of broken treaties and forced relocation of Native Americans as the result of westward expansion. My novel of the Southern Plains Indian Wars, Palo Duro, begins with the negotiations at Medicine Lodge Creek whereat the U.S. government altered the terms of the Little Arkansas Treaty signed just two years prior.

Under the provisions of the new treaties (there would be three in all) the Kiowa, the Apache and the Comanche were required to give up more than 60,000 square miles of their land in the Texas Panhandle in exchange for a reservation in Indian Territory, and the parts of Kansas and Indian Territory previously set aside for the Southern Cheyenne and the Arapahoe were also cut in half. 

Earlier in the 1830s the Choctaw, Chickasaw, Seminole, Creek, and Cherokee (known collectively as the Five Civilized Tribes) had also been forced from their ancestral lands in Georgia, Tennessee, Alabama, North Carolina, and Florida, and relocated west of the Mississippi to Indian Territory. Thousands died along the way, and the journey became known as the Trail of Tears.

Although the sovereignty of the Indian nations would be affirmed by the U.S. Supreme Court in Worcester vs. Georgia (1832), the demand for more land by white settlers led to the “Indian Removal Act” of 1830. The Act required the U.S. government to negotiate with the tribes in good faith. However the spirit of the law was frequently ignored, and by the 1840s thousands of Native Americans had been driven off their land in the Southeastern United States and force marched to present-day Oklahoma. The Choctaw became the first nation to be forcibly expelled. This tribe was followed by the Creeks. The last to go were the Cherokee.

By 1838 only about 2,000 of the estimated 16,000 Cherokee had “voluntarily” left their homeland. The U.S. Army under General Winfield Scott was authorized to expedite the removal of the holdouts. It is estimated that somewhere between 5,000-8,000  perished from disease and starvation as they made their way westward.

The promises of an unmolested new home for those that survived also failed to materialize. Indian Territory shrank as more and more white settlers encroached on these lands, and when Oklahoma became a state in 1907 the guarantee of this new homeland was gone for good.

Over a hundred years later, on August 23rd 2019, the Principal Chief of the Cherokee Nation announced that the tribe would appoint its first delegate to the House of Representatives. The prospect of a sitting congressional representative is historic. While the tribe’s delegate will lack a chamber vote, for the very first time a Cherokee will sit on House committees (e.g., Appropriations, Ways and Means, etc.) which will provide the Cherokee Nation with direct access to members of Congress who do possess voting power.

What remains uncertain is whether the United States government will honor long standing treaty rights. The provision authorizing representation is contained in the 1835 Treaty of New Echota. Only now has the Cherokee Nation obtained sufficient economic and political clout to move forward, but it remains to be seen whether the treaty will be contested. Treaties negotiated with sovereign nations do not expire, but if history is any indication, those applying to Native Americans can certainly be ignored.

The last chapter in the Southern Plains Indians’ struggle ended much as the first chapter began – in broken promises.

Hopefully the Cherokee Nation and its new delegate to the House of Representatives will write not just a new chapter in Native American history, but one that expresses hope for their future.

Labor Day Weekend

Labor Day Blog

2019 marks the 125th anniversary of Labor Day as a national holiday. Although Oregon was the first state to recognize it as an official public holiday in 1887, it didn’t become a federal holiday until 1894.

Dedicated to the social and economic achievements of the American worker, two men have been credited with proposing the observance – Matthew Maguire, the Secretary of the Central Labor Union (CLU) of New York, and Peter J. McGuire, Vice President of the American Federation of Labor (AFL) in Columbus, Ohio. Both organizations would later merge to become the AFL-CIO, the largest federation of unions in the United States.

The manner of observance has changed over the years. The initial proposal did specify that the first Monday in September be set aside for the celebration, and recommended that it begin with a street parade to show the public “the strength and espirit de corps of the trade and labor organizations.” The parade was to be followed by a festival “for the recreation and amusement of workers and their families.”

Today, mass displays and parades have given way to emphasis on individual leisure time. The holiday marks the “unofficial end of summer.” School and sports activities begin at this time. Labor Day Weekend is the first three-day holiday of the school calendar year, and the NCAA (National Collegiate Athletic Association) typically plays their first games throughout the three-day weekend. In the world of fashion, Labor Day has long been considered the last acceptable day to wear white, beaches and barbecues are synonymous with the holiday, and shoppers flock to department stores or shop online for items (especially back-to-school supplies, clothing, and shoes for school age children) at discounted prices.

What we tend to forget or take for granted, however, are the advances in workers’ rights… eight hour workdays, two-day weekends, paid holidays, minimum wages, the elimination of child labor, and the duty of the state to regulate labor conditions.

None of these advances would have been possible without the efforts of those who organized and championed better working conditions beginning in the latter part of the 19th century and continuing into the present time.